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АДВОКАТЪТ И ПРОКУРОРЪТ В НАКЗАТЕЛНОТО ПРАВО на САЩ

Posted on October 7, 2013 - Filed Under Uncategorized | 134 Comments

Правото на САЩ е основано на принципа на противопоставянето, което дава на насрещните страни възможността за събиране на доказателства, формулиране на правни теории, представянето на доказателства и аргументи пред съдията и съдебните заседатели по време на процеса. Адвокатът не трябва да прекрачва етичните правила на професионалната отговорност преследвайки на всяка цена победа на делото. Адвокатът не може да прави произволни твърдения или защити, умишлено представяйки неистински доказателства или да прикрива потенциални такива. Адвокатът трябва да представи фактите и правния прецедент с цел да избегне подвеждането на съда. Адвокатът също има и задължението да не забавя процеса и да съдейства за неговото ускоряване.
Адвокатът не може под какъвто и да е повод да прави опити да влияе на съдия, съдебен заседател, както и да прави публичен коментар на делото, ако изявленията биха могли да предубедят обществото. Ако адвокатът знае, че той ще бъде необходим свидетел по дадено дело, той не следва да поема представителство по делото.
Прокурорът има специфични функции в криминалния процес. Прокурорът може да не повдигне обвинение, ако знае, че обвинението не е подкрепено от вероятностния принцип или ако има за цел снемането на важни предпроцесуални права на неприсъстваш обвиняем. Прокурорът трябва да осигури необходимите условия за адвокатска защита на обвиняемия, също така да уведомява защитата за евентуална смекчаваща вината информация и информация, която е оправдателна спрямо обвиняемия. Прокурорът няма право да призовава адвоката да представя информация за миналото или настоящето на клиента. С разрешение на съда обаче, прокурорът може да призове адвоката, ако информацията, която се иска не е поверителна и доказателството е съществено за разследването или прокурора и няма друг реално осъществим начин за получаване на информацията.
Прокурорът трябва да се въздържа да прави публични коментари, които биха могли да повлияят на съдебното производство или да увеличат негативните настроения в обществото спрямо обвиняемия/подсъдимия. Прокурорът не нарушава правомощията си, ако прави публични изявления относно въпроси свързани с правото, предоставяйки информация за делото. Например, ако обвиняем избяга от мястото на задържане и прокурорът предполага, че той е въоръжен и опасен, прокурорът може да предупреди обществото за това, дори това предупреждение да създаде отрицателни нагласи в обществото спрямо обвинения.

Comments

134 Responses to “АДВОКАТЪТ И ПРОКУРОРЪТ В НАКЗАТЕЛНОТО ПРАВО на САЩ”

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